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  1. Interesting overview. From what I understood there seem not a lot of disagreements among those interviewed. What are the main challenges seen for the future of the commons?

  2. Thank you Marco for your interest.
    Two answers, one on disagreements, one on challenges.
    On disagreements.
    28 interviews were conducted, and 20 interviewees agreed to have their interview published. Among those 20 it is true that there are no strong disagreements but several nuances, such as the ontological vs strategic use of the concept of the commons (are commons a new project of society or a means for given objectives), or the formalisation of rules in the law or not. Within the 8 interviewees who did not want to have their interview published, several have doubts about the commons concept, as a new fashion and also as a concept which can be in competition with the concept of territoire (place-based research), as a concept which is difficult to manage with a project-based governance and which challenges state/market power.
    On challenges
    There is the challenge of identity and sovereignity “The stakes are even bigger than that, especially in the context of land, because a community’s ownership of land has a lot to do with its culture and identity. That’s an enormously important thing to preserve. People often want to create or preserve a common because they want to maintain their way of life and cultural identity that may go back centuries” (Bollier). However identity and sovereignity are also central arguments for exclusion.
    The second concept is the idea of plurality of perspectives, which includes plurality of perspectives on the commons.
    The third challenge is to find an articulation between the commons and the market and the state. Specifically in several parts of the world the state is weakened and more and more fragile, which causes very severe problems (security, justice, health, education…). How to protect and favour the Commons without contributing to the weakening of the state?

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