The successive constitutions of Madagascar establish Fokonolona as the basis of socio-cultural, institutional, and development life. However, a minority seem to benefit from the country’s abundant commonwealth. Why then did the Fokonolona, a clan heritage, survive the different political tendencies? This communication presents the historical and socio-cultural foundations of Fokonolona to fuel reflections and actions for the governance of common goods in Madagascar. Based on writings, capitalizations of experiences, and interviews, we have identified the constructive and sometimes denaturing aspects of the Fokonolona concept. The Fokonolona is the entire population of the terroir of life, of various forms, including common goods such as natural, cultural, and spiritual heritage: intergenerational knowledge/practices or other elements of living together. The decision-making process for an authentic Fokonolona is by consensus at inclusive general meetings. The different subjects are governed by Dina – collective agreements – and managed by management units accountable to the assembly. A council of elders and a facilitator settle disputes and represent the Fokonolona at the ridge level. In addition, the current state system administratively circumscribes Fokonolona in a fokontany corresponding or not to the soil. The Fokonolona is sometimes assimilated to groups/associations. Decisions are taken at higher levels or by elected politicians. Thus, parallel governance systems coexist, often colliding. The fate of a resource considered to be strategic tends to be decided by a minority. In the absence of consistency, the situation generates negative impacts on collective resources and Fokonolona. Ideally, however, the articulation of the two models. New perspectives should learn from the history and strengths of culture. The knowledge of the authentic forms in the various zones of Madagascar, as well as their modes of representation, deserve deepening and consultations between the actors.