Development constitutes important social issues, both at local and national levels in Africa.” The world of development is a world of “political” action, […] where we intend to transform voluntarily reality. ” (Olivier de Sardan, 2001) The approach by the commons, which we propose to reread here, takes its source in a reflexive work carried out for several years within the CTFD. development aid by operationalizing the reading grid initiated by the Bloomington school (Ostrom, 1990). The process of operationalizing the approach by the Commons can be formalized in 4 steps which we will read in this presentation through the sciences complexity: 1. Identify and formalize action situations and the contexts in which development projects are initiated. The very notion of the system allows them to be better characterized, in particular with regard to the emergence of meaning between components of the system 2. Use the notion of complexity to define the commons by considering the concepts of weak and strong emergence as constitutive of modes of organization of the system. These are necessary for the system to explore the regulatory capacity of the Commons. 3. Considering the place of the observer in the system and the meaning it gives to social and ecological solidarities through the modeling of complex systems, constitutes a means of awareness by the different actors intervening in a given action situation. 4. Understand the modalities of capitalization, transmission, and enrichment of knowledge and practices from an inclusive perspective to push towards co-management and adaptive governance. Normative production in this context results mainly from usage. The systemic approach that we defend in this proposal allows us to question human and non-human relationships through the different types of emergence through the prism of socio-environmental interactions.