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  1. Sad story to see local food systems being taken over by food production for export. Especially now that COVID-19 may disrupt the global supply chains. What are ways local communities could improve their livelihood security?

    1. 1. Re-assessing common pool resources governance and seeking more equitable distribution accross the food systems. Currently within the study area most of the WRUAs governance is influenced by the actors contributing more resources and currently it is the agro-industrial food systems. Local food systems could seek to engage access to especially water (to enable food production) by becoming more active in water resource user associations (WRUAs) and in this way have a higher bargaining power as their representation is more solid.
      2. Local food systems exploring climate smart agriculture to enable food production within their limited resource settings and utilize the common pool resources more sustainably yet have food needs met.
      3. Working with agro-industrial food systems to manage post-harvest food waste. Re-assessing the food standards regulations to allow for ‘food waste’ to be accessible for local food systems actors for consumption and in this way contribute directly to food security.

    2. Ngutu M., Bukachi S., Olungah C.O., Haller T (2018). Opportunities and Challenges in Export Horticulture as an Agro-industrial Food System: Case Study of Northwest Mount Kenya Region. International Journal on Food System Dynamics 2018, 9 (5). 470-483; doi: 10.18461/ijfsd.v9i5.957

      Ngutu M., Bukachi S., Olungah C.O., Kiteme B., Kaeser F., Haller T (2018). The Actors, Rules and Regulations Linked to Export Horticulture Production and Access to Land and Water as Common Pool Resources in Laikipia County, Northwest Mount Kenya, Land 2018, 7, 110; doi:10.3390/land7030110

  2. Curious about the identification of land as a common pool resource given the picture in the background. If the horticulture farm is the one shown in the background with a center pivot, is the land a CPR, meaning the resource is non-excludable and extractable (rivalrous)? Or is this private land and therefore a private good? I had to ask myself these questions for the study of a community managed irrigated farm (see my presentation in the water commons section).

    1. Yes the 70 percent of the land for horticulture farm is a largely a private good. However , 30 percent is on 5 year lease. Only 60 percent of the horticulture farm land is under production the 40 percent has been left for prospects as well as for conservation. This unutilised portion of land has under informal arrangements been opened up by the horticulture farm to local food systems for pasture, but at times there is incidences of trespass by livestock into land under production for export. The horticulture farm is also surrounded by large tracts of land owned under communal tenure by pastoral communities. There are also small holder farmers with small portions of privately owned land. The Ewaso Ngi’ro river cuts across this portions of land including that of the horticulture farm and therefore connecting actors across the 3 food systems needing to access water from the same catchment area. This then presents a scenario of possible conflict linked to land for access to water

      1. Ngutu M., Bukachi S., Olungah C.O., Haller T (2018). Opportunities and Challenges in Export Horticulture as an Agro-industrial Food System: Case Study of Northwest Mount Kenya Region. International Journal on Food System Dynamics 2018, 9 (5). 470-483; doi: 10.18461/ijfsd.v9i5.957

        Ngutu M., Bukachi S., Olungah C.O., Kiteme B., Kaeser F., Haller T (2018). The Actors, Rules and Regulations Linked to Export Horticulture Production and Access to Land and
        Water as Common Pool Resources in Laikipia County, Northwest Mount Kenya, Land 2018, 7, 110; doi:10.3390/land7030110

  3. Thank you for the case study.

    I did not get clarity on the formal and informal rules on the use of water resources. Could you kindly explain further?

    Do you know how these horticultural investments have been affected by Covid-19?

    It would be interesting to hear more voices from communities surrounding such investments.

  4. Given the erratic rainfall and semi-arid climate, agriculture production in the study area relies on irrigation and water harvesting. The 3 food systems; Agro-industrial food system( horticulture production) and local food systems (agro-pastoralists and small holder farmers) share water from the same Ewaso Ngi’ro river basin that cuts across their portions of land under communal and private tenure yet a common pool resource necessary for food production.
    Water access is governed by state through community Water resource user associations (WRUAs). The management of WRUAs is driven by community resources whereby in the study setting the agro-industrial food system contributes more given their larger resource base and this results in them having a higher bargaining power position in water governance to the disadvantage of local food systems.
    Regulation of water use is mandated to the state. In documents, the users accessing water are recorded as the recommended, however in practice their is over harvesting of the water from the river including encroachment into the riparian. The state is challenged in the enforcement of water harvesting as some of the actors divert water without authorization and once reported disconnect to comply during inspection. The agro-industrial food systems and the local food systems blame and report each other of water diversion yet compromise the regulation based on their bargaining power position.
    Additional research to further understand how the horticultural investments have been affected by COVID-19 would be interesting. Current indications is that production and markets are now greatly impacted by the lock downs, with high losses recorded given the highly perishable nature of the fresh fruits and vegetables. Evolving food standards given the strict measures around the pandemic control are influencing markets but also causing higher transaction costs of the horticulture produce.
    Implementing risk control measures for COVID-19 for workers in horticulture production is challenging. Pre-COVID compliance for personal protective equipment (PPEs) was a constant challenge in the agro-industrial food system and it may be be more prevailing now in the pandemic which requires more compliance for PPEs for the workers.

  5. Given the erratic rainfall and semi-arid climate, agriculture production in the study area relies on irrigation and water harvesting. The 3 food systems; Agro-industrial food system( horticulture production) and local food systems (agro-pastoralists and small holder farmers) share water from the same Ewaso Ngi’ro river basin that cuts across their portions of land under communal and private tenure yet a common pool resource necessary for food production.
    Water access is governed by state through community Water resource user associations (WRUAs). The management of WRUAs is driven by community resources whereby in the study setting the agro-industrial food system contributes more given their larger resource base and this results in them having a higher bargaining power position in water governance to the disadvantage of local food systems.
    Regulation of water use is mandated to the state. In documents, the users accessing water are recorded as the recommended, however in practice their is over harvesting of the water from the river including encroachment into the riparian. The state is challenged in the enforcement of water harvesting as some of the actors divert water without authorization and once reported disconnect to comply during inspection. The agro-industrial food systems and the local food systems blame and report each other of water diversion yet compromise the regulation based on their bargaining power position.
    Additional research to further understand how the horticultural investments have been affected by COVID-19 would be interesting. Current indications is that production and markets are now greatly impacted by the lock downs, with high losses recorded given the highly perishable nature of the fresh fruits and vegetables. Evolving food standards given the strict measures around the pandemic control are influencing markets but also causing higher transaction costs of the horticulture produce.
    Implementing risk control measures for COVID-19 for workers in horticulture production is challenging. Pre-COVID compliance for personal protective equipment (PPEs) was a constant challenge in the agro-industrial food system and it may be be more prevailing now in the pandemic which requires more compliance for PPEs for the workers.
    See this 2 publications, they may shed more insights

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